Law and Legislation

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C-SPAN is a cable television station that closely covers Congress, the White House, and national political events and information. Their website includes a video library of speeches, hearings, committee meetings, and other events of political interest.

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"Beginning with the Continental Congress in 1774, America's national legislative bodies have kept records of their proceedings. The records of the Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention, and the United States Congress make up a rich documentary history of the construction of the nation and the development of the federal government and its role in the national life. These documents record American history in the words of those who built our government.

Books on the law formed a major part of the holdings of the Library of Congress from its beginning. In 1832, Congress established the Law Library of Congress as a separate department of the Library. It houses one of the most complete collections of U.S. Congressional documents in their original format. In order to make these records more easily accessible to students, scholars, and interested citizens, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation brings together online the records and acts of Congress from the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Congress, including the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, 1873-75." from web site

Materials are dated 1774-1875, when available. The following are components of this collection:

  • Journals of the Continental Congress
  • Letters of Delegates to Congress
  • Elliot's Debates
  • Farrand's Records
  • Bills and Resolutions
  • Statutes at Large
  • American State Papers
  • U.S. Serial Set
  • House Journal
  • Senate Journal
  • Senate Executive Journal
  • Maclay's Journal
  • Annals of Congress
  • Register of Debates
  • Congressional Globe
  • Congressional Record

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"This site reflects the City's on-going efforts to communicate effectively with the people of Akron, to provide up-to-date information for on-line users and to keep up with the cutting-edge technology of the 21st Century." from web site

Includes information about the Akron City Council, Mayor Donald L. Plusquellic, the Municipal Court, city departments and attractions, and news releases. Also includes e-services such as anonymous tips for the Akron Police Department (APD), traffic alerts, employment opportunities, income tax, the municipal code, and other online forms.

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"The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year and is issued on a quarterly basis." from web site

The eCFR site presents the most recently updated version of the CFR.

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The mission of USCCR is:

"To investigate complaints alleging that citizens are being deprived of their right to vote by reason of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or by reason of fraudulent practices.

To study and collect information relating to discrimination or a denial of equal protection of the laws under the Constitution because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice.

To appraise federal laws and policies with respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice.

To serve as a national clearinghouse for information in respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin.

To submit reports, findings, and recommendations to the President and Congress.

To issue public service announcements to discourage discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws." from web site

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Listing of current Congressional committees for the House.

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Major resources available through the U.S. House of Representatives web site include:

  • Currently on the House Floor
  • Access the Laws of the United States
  • Find a Bill, Amendment, or Debate
  • Find Vote Information
  • What does the House do?
  • Find your Representative

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Major resources available through the U.S. Senate web site include:

  • Session Schedule
  • Scheduled Hearings
  • Active Legislation
  • Votes
  • Floor Schedule
  • Virtual Reference Desk
  • Public Disclosure
  • Nominations
  • Statistics and Lists
  • Daily Digest, Senate Calendar, Executive Calendar
  • The Capitol Camera

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This resource provides the full text of bills beginning with the 103rd Congress (1993-94).

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"he Congressional Calendars collection includes the Calendars of the U.S. House of Representatives and History of Legislation and the Senate Calendar of Business. The Calendars of the U.S. House of Representatives and History of Legislation is prepared under the direction of the Clerk of the House of Representatives by the Office of Legislative Operations. It is published daily by 8:00 a.m. when the House is in session. The Senate Calendar of Business is prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Legislative Clerk. It is updated each day the Senate is in session."--from web site

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"Congressional Committee Prints are publications issued by Congressional Committees that include topics related to their legislative or research activities, as well as other matters such as memorial tributes. The prints are an excellent resource for statistical and historical information, and for legislative analysis. The subjects of the Committee Prints vary greatly due to the different concerns and actions of each committee. Some basic categories of Congressional Committee Prints are: draft reports and bills, directories, statistical materials, investigative reports, historical reports, situational studies, confidential staff reports, hearings, and legislative analyses."--from web site

This resource includes Committee Prints going back to the 102nd Congress (1991-92).

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"A hearing is a meeting or session of a Senate, House, joint, or special committee of Congress, usually open to the public, to obtain information and opinions on proposed legislation, conduct an investigation, or evaluate/oversee the activities of a government department or the implementation of a Federal law. In addition, hearings may also be purely exploratory in nature, providing testimony and data about topics of current interest. Most congressional hearings are published two months to two years after they are held."--from web site

FDsys includes hearings going back to the 99th Congress (1985-86).

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"Congressional reports originate from congressional committees and deal with proposed legislation and issues under investigation. There are two types of reports:

"House and Senate Reports: Reports of congressional committees concerning proposed legislation and/or contain findings on matters under investigation.

"Senate Executive Reports: Reports of the Committee on Foreign Relations relating to treaties between the United States and foreign nations which have been submitted to the U.S. Senate for ratification, or are reports of various Senate committees regarding nomination of individuals."--from web site

This resource includes Congressional Reports going back to the 104th Congress (1995-96).

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The Congressional Staff Directory has multiple indexes which make finding the information you need quick and easy. You will find detailed state-by-state information on any member's congressional districts. Also, locate key decision-makers and support staff that work behind the scenes on important legislative issues.

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"Welcome to the U.S. Copyright Office. We in the Copyright Office are proud to be part of a long tradition of promoting progress of the arts and protection for the works of authors. We are also excited about the reengineering of our operations. Our goal is to make major improvements in our public services and a key part of this initiative is providing the opportunity to register your works online via our website." from web site

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"To provide American citizens direct online access to the basic Federal Government documents that define our democratic society, a core group of current and historical "This collection provides American citizens with direct online access to the basic Federal Government documents that define our democratic society. These titles contain information about the democratic process that are critical to informed citizens. They support the public's right to know about the essential activities of their Government" from web site

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This resource provides access to constitutional documents and legislation from the European Union.

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"GPO's Federal Digital System (FDsys) provides public access to Government information submitted by Congress and Federal agencies and preserved as technology changes."

FDsys is a major resource for current publications from Congress and the White House. Use the Advanced Search or Retrieve by Citation to find information from specific resources such as the Compilation of Presidential Documents or Congressional Documents.

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"The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency for the federal courts. Congress created the FJC in 1967 to promote improvements in judicial administration in the courts of the United States. This site contains the results of Center research on federal court operations and procedures and court history, as well as selected educational materials produced for judges and court employees." from web site

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"Published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents." from web site

This site includes issues of the FR back to 1994, and has a citation search feature.

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"The GAO Reports and Comptroller General Decisions collection contains reports ("blue books") on audits, surveys, investigations, and evaluations of Federal programs conducted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). All published reports, testimonies, correspondence, and special publications are included. Products that are restricted or classified are not included. GAO Comptroller General Decisions contains decisions and opinions issued by the Comptroller General in areas of Federal law such as appropriations, bid protests, and Federal agency rulemaking." from web site

Reports available on this site cover the period 1989-2008.

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"The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. Often called the "congressional watchdog," GAO investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars. The head of GAO, the Comptroller General of the United States, is appointed to a 15-year term by the President from a slate of candidates Congress proposes." from web site

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"As the official handbook of the Federal Government, the United States Government Manual provides comprehensive information on the agencies of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. It also includes information on quasi-official agencies; international organizations in which the United States participates; and boards, commissions, and committees. The Manual begins with reprints of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.

A typical agency description includes:

  • A list of officials heading major operating units.
  • A summary statement of the agency's purpose and role in the Federal Government
  • A brief history of the agency, including its legislative or executive authority.
  • A description of its programs and activities.
  • Information, addresses, and phone numbers to help users locate detailed information on consumer activities, contracts and grants, employment, publications, and other matters of public interest.

The Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register (see 1 CFR 9.1). Its focus is on programs and activities. Persons interested in detailed organizational structure, the regulatory documents of an agency, or Presidential documents should refer to the Federal Register or one of its other special editions." from web site

This database includes the U.S. Government Manual for 1995-96 and later.

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"The History of Bills lists legislative actions on bills that are reported in the Congressional Record, which has been published since 1874. In print it is part of the Congressional Record Index, the biweekly publication from the Joint Committee on Printing, but on FDsys it is a separate collection."--from web site

This resource goes back to the 98th Congress (1983-84).

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This resource provides cases from the European Court of Human Rights.

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This resource provides case law from the European Court of Justice.

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"Congress established its Law Library in 1832, recognizing its need for ready access to reliable legal materials. The Law Library has grown over the years to become the world’s largest law library, with a collection of over three million volumes spanning the ages and covering virtually every jurisdiction in the world." from web site

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This resource from the National Association of Counties (NACo) includes an overview and history of county government, and a locator guide to find and compare counties in the United States.

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The Legal Information Institute is an easy-to-use, non-authoritative source for laws and codes. It includes Wex, a free dictionary of legal terms.

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This resource is the primary portal for legislation in the United Kingdom.

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The Legislative Service Commission (LSC) is an agency providing drafting, fiscal, research, training, and other technical services to the Ohio General Assembly. This resource includes full-text analysis of Ohio bills and resolutions, budgets, and other issues of interest.

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The Ohio Revised Code and Ohio Administrative Code are available to search and browse online.

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The Library is where electronic versions of classic books about individual liberty are stored. These texts go back some 4,000 years and cover the disciplines of economics, history, law, literature, philosophy, political theory, religion, war and peace. They are in a variety of formats - facsimile PDFs so scholars can view the original text, HTML for ease of searching and attractive layout, and text-based PDF EBooks for personal use. The Library also contains bibliographic information about the books as well as other "metadata" about the authors and editors.

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This resource from LLSDC's Legislative Source Book describes the history of the Congressional Record and its predecessors. University of Akron students, staff, and faculty have access to the Congressional Record in ProQuest Congressional and Hein Online.

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"For over 200 years, the basic role of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has remained the same: to promote the progress of science and the useful arts by securing for limited times to inventors the exclusive right to their respective discoveries (Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution). Under this system of protection, American industry has flourished. New products have been invented, new uses for old ones discovered, and employment opportunities created for millions of Americans. The strength and vitality of the U.S. economy depends directly on effective mechanisms that protect new ideas and investments in innovation and creativity. The continued demand for patents and trademarks underscores the ingenuity of American inventors and entrepreneurs. The USPTO is at the cutting edge of the Nation’s technological progress and achievement.

The USPTO is a federal agency in the Department of Commerce. The USPTO occupies five interconnected buildings in Alexandria, Virginia. The office employs over 7,000 full time staff to support its major functions--- the examination and issuance of patents and the examination and registration of trademarks.

The USPTO has evolved into a unique government agency. Since 1991--under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1990--the agency has been fully fee funded. The primary services the agency provides include processing patent and trademark applications and disseminating patent and trademark information.

Through the issuance of patents, the USPTO encourages technological advancement by providing incentives to invent, invest in, and disclose new technology worldwide. Through the registration of trademarks, the agency assists businesses in protecting their investments, promoting goods and services, and safeguarding consumers against confusion and deception in the marketplace. By disseminating both patent and trademark information, the USPTO promotes an understanding of intellectual property protection and facilitates the development and sharing of new technologies worldwide." from web site

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This resource includes slip laws going back to the 104th Congress (1995-96).

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"Regulations.gov is your source for all regulations (or rulemakings) issued by U.S. government agencies. On this site, you can find:

  • All Federal regulations that are open for public comment (i.e., proposed rules) and closed for comment (i.e., final rules) as published in the Federal Register
  • Many Federal agency notices published in the Federal Register.
  • Additional supporting materials, public comments, and Federal agency guidance and adjudications.

When you find a document, you can also submit comments through the web site on those documents that are open for public comment.

After Congressional bills become laws, Federal Departments and Agencies are responsible for enforcing those laws through regulations. Departments and Agencies develop regulations through the Federal rulemaking process, most commonly through a notice-and-comment process. In general, Departments and Agencies publish proposed rules that are open for public comment, and after a specified timeframe, the Department or Agency publishes a final rule based on public comments and other information. Regulations.gov users can find Federal proposed and final rules published every business day by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in the U.S. government's Federal Register, and submit comments through the web site to the Agencies on proposed rules that are open for public comment.

The Regulations.gov web site also houses other types of federal information. In addition to Federal regulations, many Departments and Agencies use Regulations.gov to post other types of documents open for public comment, such as Agency significant guidance. Certain Federal agencies also allow the public to initiate an action by filing a submission via Regulations.gov.

Each Department or Agency determines what information is made available on the site. Therefore, the information displayed on Regulations.gov docket and document details screens and comment forms is unique for each Department and Agency and conforms to each Department or Agency's internal policy. For additional information on a specific Department or Agency, visit www.usa.gov." from web site

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Official site for the State of Ohio. Find information and services, see the latest features and news from the state, and view resources for living, learning, and working in Ohio. Also includes information for businesses and state employees, and access portals for all branches of Ohio government.

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"The United States Statutes at Large, typically referred to as the Statutes at Large, is the permanent collection of all laws and resolutions enacted during each session of Congress. The Statutes at Large is prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR), National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

"Under the provisions of 1 U.S.C. 112, the printed edition of the Statutes at Large is legal evidence of the laws, concurrent resolutions, proclamations by the President, and proposed and ratified amendments to the Constitution."--from web site

This resource includes Statutes at Large going back to Volume 117, 2003. A digitized version of Statutes at Large is available in FDsys for the period 1951-2002.

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The official Web site of Summit County, Ohio, links to information about property, development, services, courts, and county management.

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"The full text of Supreme Court Decisions issued between 1937 and 1975, containing 7,407 Decisions from volumes 300 through 422 of U.S. Reports, has been provided to the U.S. Government Printing Office through efforts of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. It was furnished by the U.S. Air Force from its FLITE ("Federal Legal Information Through Electronics") system. GPO is making the database available to the public without costly validation efforts and cannot attest to its authenticity or completeness." from web site

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"The Constitution of Ohio separates our state government into three branches, each with distinct areas of responsibility — the executive, the legislative and the judicial. The primary function of the judicial branch is to fairly and impartially settle disputes according to the law. To do this, a number of courts have been established in the state by the Constitution and by acts of the General Assembly. Further, in addition to its place in the court structure as the court of last resort, the Supreme Court, in particular the Chief Justice, is responsible for the administration of the judicial branch in Ohio." - from website

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Information on the Supreme Court web site includes:

  • About the Supreme Court
  • Docket
  • Oral Arguments
  • Merits Briefs
  • Bar Admissions
  • Court Rules
  • Case Handling Guides
  • Opinions
  • Orders and Journals
  • Visiting the Court
  • Public Information

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This resource includes latest slip opinions, opinions relating to orders, in-chamber opinions, and opinions of the court, usually from the last three or four terms.

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THOMAS makes federal legislative information freely available to the public, beginning with the 104th Congress (1995-1996). Features and content includes:

  • Bills, Resolutions
  • Activity in Congress
  • Congressional Record
  • Schedules, Calendars
  • Committee Information
  • Presidential Nominations
  • Treaties
  • Other Government Resources

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"The text of all Council of Europe treaties, their explanatory reports, the status of signatures and ratifications, the declarations and reservations made by States, as well as the notifications issued by the Treaty Office since 2005, are available on this website." - from web site

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"The United States Code is the codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. It is divided by broad subjects into 50 titles and published by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. The U.S. Code was first published in 1926. The next main edition was published in 1934, and subsequent main editions have been published every six years since 1934. In between editions, annual cumulative supplements are published in order to present the most current information.

"FDsys contains virtual main editions of the U.S. Code. The information contained in the U.S. Code on FDsys has been provided to GPO by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. While every effort has been made to ensure that the U.S. Code on FDsys is accurate, those using it for legal research should verify their results against the printed version of the U.S. Code available through the Government Printing Office."--from web site

FDsys includes the USC back to 1994.

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"The bound volumes of the United States Reports contain the fourth and final generation of the Court's opinions. See the file entitled "Information About Opinions." However, the materials collected here contain not just opinions, but the full text, from cover through index, of bound volumes 502 et seq., including all of the opinions, orders, and other materials issued for the Court's 1991 Term and subsequent years. Additional volumes will be included here after they are published in print form." from web site

This resource includes U.S. Reports volumes 502 and later.

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"Once fully complete, the World Treaty Index will feature every known international agreement in the 20th Century. This includes tens of thousands agreements entered into by hundreds of countries and international organizations. We offer a variety of methods to access the underlying data. Currently, this website only contains treaties signed between 1945 and 1999." - from website

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