Laws and regulations governing equal employment opportunity
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires every employer to pay employees equal salaries for equal work. It is currently administered by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in all programs or activities which receive federal financial aid. Employment discrimination is prohibited if a primary purpose of federal assistance is provision of employment (apprenticeship, training, work study or similar programs) or if program beneficiaries suffer unequal treatment because of hiring or assignment of counselors, trainers, faculty, or others in organizations receiving federal funds. Title VI is administered by the Office of Civil Rights, United States Department of Education.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII prohibits employers, employment agencies and unions from discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. It is administered by the EEOC.
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Sections 503 and 504) prohibits job discrimination on the basis of a physical or mental handicap, provided the applicant is otherwise qualified for the position. Also, employers are required to actively recruit qualified handicapped persons as part of an established affirmative action program. The Act is administered by the United States Department of Labor.
Section 402 of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 prohibits discrimination against any person because he or she is a disabled veteran of the Vietnam era. Employers are required to take affirmative action to enhance veteran's employment opportunities.
Executive Order 11246 (Revised Order #4) seeks to promote and insure equal opportunity for all persons without regard to race, color, religion, sex or national origin of employees or persons seeking employment with government contractors. The Order is administered by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program (OFCCP), United States Department of Labor. It is this order that mandates that Affirmative Action Programs be described in written plans, with specific goals and timetables for recruiting, hiring, and upgrading blacks, other minorities and women.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination in any educational institution that receives federal assistance. Title IX is administered by the Office of Civil Rights, United States Department of Education.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibits employers from discriminating against persons 40 years of age and over in any area of employment because of age.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 prohibits employers with more than three employees from discriminating based on citizenship or intending citizenship status and bars employers with more than three employees that aren't otherwise covered by Title VII from discriminating based on national origin. The Act is administered by the United States Department of Justice.
State Law Against Discrimination, Ohio Revised Code 4112.0 prohibits discrimination in Ohio by reason of age, sex, handicap, color, religion, age, national origin, or ancestry in housing, public accommodation and employment. This law is administered by the Ohio Civil Rights Commission.
The National Labor Relations Act and Related Laws. Discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin may violate other rights under these laws. It may be unlawful for employers to participate with unions in a manner which gives rise to racial or other divisions among employees, to the detriment of organized union activity; or for unions to exclude individuals discriminatorily from union membership, thereby causing them to lose non-members in collective bargaining, processing of grievances, or to cause or attempt to cause employers to enter into discriminatory agreements.