*** Please note, each row and course# listed below is a separate, complete course. ***

An Introduction to Continuous Vulcanization And CV Processes

Course# Date Time Location
128-1126 10/03/2024 - 10/03/2024 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM Microsoft Teams
128-1129 07/07/2025 - 07/07/2025 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM Microsoft Teams
128-1128 10/03/2025 - 10/03/2025 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM Microsoft Teams
Cost: $750.00 USD
Online Registration
CEU's: 0.8
Instructor: Richard D. Strong

Course Overview

This presentation was developed for rubber industry employees who currently use Continuous Vulcanization (CV) processes and wish to expand their knowledge or those who wish to gain insights into these processes and how they can be used.

This course will offer an overview of the variety of commercially viable Continuous Vulcanization processes and their strengths and weaknesses. Following that it will take the students into a more in depth study of the 3 most common forms of CV, Liquid Curing Media (LCM), better known as the Salt Bath process, Hot Air Vulcanization (HAV) and Microwave/Hot Air Vulcanization. The emphasis will be on practical knowledge that can be utilized in production along with safety concerns that must always be addressed.

We will begin by looking at the common elements to all 3 processes, namely the extruder and its auxiliary components, plus downstream equipment for cooling and pulling.

There will be a hands-on learning component of actually extruding a rubber compound so the students can see firsthand what is involved in this process.

Online Course Requirements

We want you to have a great experience participating in our remote (online) courses, and for that, you’ll need the right equipment and internet connection.

Minimum needs are:

  • A broadband internet connection that has at least a 2 Mbps upload and download speed.
  • A computer (PC or Mac) that can support the latest web browser versions.
  • At least 4 GB of RAM and adequate hard drive space.
  • A microphone and a speaker.
  • International Students: For virtual (online) courses, an additional fee will be assessed to cover the cost of shipping the professional binder (presentation slides), to your address. The cost of international shipping can be significant.

For more information, visit our Online Course Requirements webpage.

Instructor Biography:

Mr. Strong graduated cum laude from the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth in 1971. In 1971 he received the Fred E. Busby Award for Excellence in Chemistry. He has 45 years in the rubber industry in the areas of Rubber Materials & Process Technology and Quality Systems Management. He began his work with Continuous Vulcanization in 1973 at the Johnson Rubber Company and continues to today making flooring products for the Johnsonite Rubber Flooring Division of Tarkett North America.

His experience includes a broad range of rubber compound development ranging from ebonite to fluoroelastomers and silicone as well as closed cell sponge. These compounds were used not only in continuous vulcanization processes but also autoclave extrusion, injection, transfer, compression molding and calendaring manufacturing processes. These compounds were utilized to manufacture rubber products for the auto, heavy truck, mass transportation, architectural, RV and general industrial markets.

His responsibilities included not only compound development but the development of the mixing and other manufacturing processes required to produce a finished rubber product. This included documenting process parameters and establishing product quality requirements. Mr. Strong is a trained ISO 9001 Auditor and has served as Management Representative for his employers. He has traveled to China on 3 occasions in order to find, audit and approve suppliers of the rubber chemicals used in rubber compounds.

Mr. Strong is a member of the ACS Rubber Division and is currently serving on the Subdivision Advisory Committee. He is a past Chairman and life member of the Ohio Rubber Group. He is President and CEO of Elastomeric Consulting Services LLC He is currently employed as Senior Chemist at the Johnsonite Rubber Flooring Division of Tarkett North America.

A. Define CV Process - Types

1.  LCM – Liquid Curing Media (Salt Bath Curing)
2.  Hot Air – High Velocity Hot Air
3.  Microwave/Hot Air – Microwave ovens + High Velocity Hot Air
4.  Ballotini  (fluidized bed) – High Velocity Hot air through glass beads
5.  Rotocure – Extruder & calendar in line + rotating drum heated by oil or steam (175C)
6.  Steam Tunnel – High Pressure Steam tunnel
7.  Electron Beam – High Voltage beam + high velocity hot air
8.  Quartz & Hot Air – High Temperature Quartz heater (550C) with high velocity hot air (350C)

B. Pluses & Minuses – by Type

1. LCM – Immersion of product in liquid salt 190C – 245C

A Positives
B Negatives

2. Hot Air – Air Temperatures 150C – 275C Air speeds variable

A Positives
B Negatives

3. Microwave - Hot Air - Air Temperatures 150C – 275C Air speeds variable + Variable Microwaves

A Positives
B Negatives

4.  Ballotini – Glass beads heated by variable speed hot air

A Positives
B Negatives

5. Rotocure – Sheets of rubber cured between heated drum under low pressure

A Positives
B Negatives  

6. Steam Tunnel – Long tunnel heated by high pressure steam

A Positives
B Negatives

7. Electron Beam – Rubber subjected to 1 voltage beam of electrons

A Positives
B Negatives

8. Quartz & Hot Air Intense heat from Quartz heater + High temperature air – non cirulating

A Positives
B Negatives

C. Focused look at LCM, Hot Air and Microwave – Hot Air  “The Big 3”

1.  Common Elements

a Extruder – Review of operation, tooling, etc + demonstration
b Cooling Bath
c Puller 

D. Extrusion Demonstration & Discussion

E. LCM (Salt Bath)

1. Different configurations  (pictures and video)
2. Operational details
3. Nitrosamine issues

F. Hot Air (HAV)

1. Different configurations  (pictures and video)
2. Operational details

G. Microwave – Hot Air (HAV)

1. Different configurations  (pictures and video)
2. Operational details

H. Compound Considerations for CV Processes

I. Question & Answers


If you have any questions or need more information about this course, please contact:

Penelope Pinkston


Online Registration


Registration Form

Registration information: Registration shall remain open until posted as closed on the course listing on this site.

Registrations must be guaranteed by check, a purchase order number or a credit card, otherwise the registration will not be processed. Checks should be made payable to "The Akron Polymer Technology Services Training Center" and must include a copy of your completed registration form. Course fees are due before attending.

All registrations—whether by online, phone, fax or mail—will be confirmed and considered binding and subject to all cancellation policies. If you do not receive a confirmation prior to the class, please call The Akron Polymer Technology Services Training Center to verify your registration.

Course fee includes classroom instruction, instructional materials, parking permits, continental breakfast, lunch, beverages and refreshment breaks. Travel and hotel accommodations are not included.


Visit our registration webpage to view our cancellation/withdrawal policy.